“Einstein was typically working between several different theoretical approaches,” says Staley, the science historian. “He was looking for places in which the best laws we currently have fail or don’t provide clear guidance, and then was trying to use those critical gaps to provide new insight into connections between different areas. People often think he thought outside the box. I think he thought across several boxes, and saw ways to link theory that others did not recognize. Although others were also looking at the limits of theory and trying to unify different areas, he did it better.”

Faraday (1832) developed the mathematical concept of the 'electro-magnetic force field' as a way of mathematically describing action-at-a-distance for charged particles (. electrons and protons). This is a continuous mathematical 'plotting' of the effects (forces and thus accelerated motions) that matter has on other matter in the Space around it, thus it is a description of effects rather than causes (Inductive / a posteriori rather than deductive / a priori . And this becomes important when you read Hume and Kant , for they explain that the ultimate Principles of Physics must be a priori , not a posteriori !).

Part of Einstein's tension with the Abrahamic afterlife was his belief in determinism and his rejection of free will . Einstein stated, "The man who is thoroughly convinced of the universal operation of the law of causation cannot for a moment entertain the idea of a being who interferes in the course of events—that is, if he takes the hypothesis of causality really seriously. He has no use for the religion of fear and equally little for social or moral religion. A God who rewards and punishes is inconceivable to him for the simple reason that a man's actions are determined by necessity, external and internal, so that in God's eyes he cannot be responsible, any more than an inanimate object is responsible for the motions it goes through." [37]

It is certainly true that the particle and its forces / fields are very
useful mathematical concepts, unfortunately, they also cause many problems
and paradoxes because they are approximations to reality and do not physically
exist. We can now finally solve these problems by understanding the reason
for these discrete energy states, which are due to the fact that standing
waves only exist at discrete frequencies, like notes on the string of a
guitar, thus while the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter predicts
that energy exchanges will be discrete, as observed, the continuous e-m
wave does not anticipate this.

Thus the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter explains Max Planck's
(1900) discovery that there are only certain allowed discrete energy states
for electrons in molecules and atoms, and further, that light is only ever
emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete or 'quantum' amounts, as the
electrons move from one stable standing wave pattern to another.

It is certainly true that the particle and its forces / fields are very
useful mathematical concepts, unfortunately, they also cause many problems
and paradoxes because they are approximations to reality and do not physically
exist. We can now finally solve these problems by understanding the reason
for these discrete energy states, which are due to the fact that standing
waves only exist at discrete frequencies, like notes on the string of a
guitar, thus while the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter predicts
that energy exchanges will be discrete, as observed, the continuous e-m
wave does not anticipate this.

Thus the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter explains Max Planck's
(1900) discovery that there are only certain allowed discrete energy states
for electrons in molecules and atoms, and further, that light is only ever
emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete or 'quantum' amounts, as the
electrons move from one stable standing wave pattern to another.