"Here is someone writing a medical account who includes Hippocrates ( bold type ), the Qur'an and Hadith ( bold italics ), commentaries on them ( italics ) and his own thoughts (normal type) in one and the same paragraph. Of course the intelligentsia of Muhammed's time would have been familiar with both Greek and Indian medicine: "Hippocrates said ... 'some membranes are formed at the beginning, others after the second month, and others in the third month ... ' That is why God says , 'He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, by one formation after another in three darknesses' . Since each of these membranes has its own darkness, when God mentioned the stages of creation and transformation from one state to another, He also mentioned the darknesses of the membranes. Most commentators explain: 'it is the darkness of the belly, and the darkness of the womb, and the darkness of the placenta' ... Hippocrates said, 'The ears are opened, and the eyes, which are filled with a clear liquid .' The Prophet used to say, 'I worship Him Who made my face and formed it, and opened my hearing and eyesight ' etc. etc"" (B. Musallam (Cambridge, 1983) Sex and Society in Islam. p. 56).