The first notable militia in French history was the resistance of the Gauls to invasion by the Romans until they were defeated by Julius Caesar.  Centuries later, Joan of Arc organized and led a militia until her capture and execution in 1431. This settled the succession to the French crown and laid the basis for the formation of the modern nation of France.  During the French Revolution the term levée en masse came into use. At the time of the Franco-Prussian War , the Parisian National Guard, which had been founded during the time of the French Revolution, engaged the Prussian Army and later rebelled against the Versailles Army under Marshal McMahon.
Slatta (2001) argues that the widespread popularization of Turner's frontier thesis influenced popular histories, motion pictures, and novels, which characterize the West in terms of individualism, frontier violence, and rough justice. Disneyland 's Frontierland of the late 20th century reflected the myth of rugged individualism that celebrated what was perceived to be the American heritage. The public has ignored academic historians' anti-Turnerian models, largely because they conflict with and often destroy the icons of Western heritage. However, the work of historians during the 1980s–1990s, some of whom sought to bury Turner's conception of the frontier and others who have sought to spare the concept while presenting a more balanced and nuanced view, have done much to place Western myths in context and rescue Western history from them. 
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