There are numerous historical examples of a campaign of terrorism precipitated by a government’s reliance on excessive force to quell protest or squash dissent. The tsarist regime’s severity in dealing with the populist movement was a factor in the development of Narodaya Volya as a terrorist organization in 1879. The French government’s persecution of anarchists was a factor in subsequent anarchist terrorism in the 1890s. The British government’s execution of the heros of the Easter Rising set the stage for Michael Collins and the IRA. The Protestant violence that met the Catholic civil rights movement in Northern Ireland in 1969 pushed the Provisional IRA to retaliate. In West Germany, the death of Beno Ohnesorg at the hands of the police in a demonstration against the Shah of Iran in 1968 contributed to the emergence of the RAF” (385).