Bodde derk essays chinese civilization

Although an ancient hematite artifact from the Olmec era in Mexico dating to roughly 1000 BC indicates the possible use of the lodestone compass long before it was described in China, the Olmecs did not have iron which the Chinese would discover could be magnetised by contact with lodestone. [34] Descriptions of lodestone attracting iron were made in the Guanzi , Master Lu's Spring and Autumn Annals and Huainanzi . [35] [36] [37] The Chinese by the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) began using north-south oriented lodestone ladle-and-bowl shaped compasses for divination and geomancy and not yet for navigation . [38] [39] [40] The Lunheng , written by Wang Chong (27 – c. 100 AD) stated in chapter 52: "This instrument resembles a spoon and when it is placed on a plate on the ground, the handle points to the south". [41] [42] There are, however, another two references under chapter 47 of the same text to the attractive power of a magnet according to Needham (1986), [43] but Li Shu-hua (1954) considers it to be lodestone, and states that there is no explicit mention of a magnet in Lunheng . [33] Shen Kuo (1031–1095) of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) was the first to accurately describe both magnetic declination (in discerning true north ) and the magnetic needle compass in his Dream Pool Essays of 1088, while the author Zhu Yu (fl. 12th century) was the first to mention use of the compass specifically for navigation at sea in his book published in 1119. [22] [39] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] Even before this, however, the Wujing Zongyao military manuscript compiled by 1044 described a thermoremanence compass of heated iron or steel shaped as a fish and placed in a bowl of water which produced a weak magnetic force via remanence and induction; the Wujing Zongyao recorded that it was used as a pathfinder along with the mechanical south-pointing chariot . [49] [50]

Many of the early Christian philosophers took as their starting point the theories of Plato and later Aristotle. Others, however, such as Tertullian, rejected Greek philosophy as antithetical to revelation and faith (“Athens has nothing to do with Jerusalem”). Augustine of Hippo remains as the greatest representative of early Christian thought. The medieval period brought Christian scholastic philosophy , with writers such as Anselm , Thomas Aquinas , John Duns Scotus , and William of Ockham . The philosophers in the scholastic Christian tradition and philosophers in the other major Abrahamic religions , such as the Jewish philosopher Maimonides and the Muslim philosophers Avicenna , Al-Ghazali , and Averroes , were intercommunicative. A female Christian philosopher of the period was a student of Abelard named Heloise . Another was Hildegard von Bingen who, besides her accomplishments in music, healing, and spirituality was also an important religious thinker and leader.

Third, the Mohists see the morally right as conceptually distinct from the customary or traditional. An argument that appeals to the distinction can be found in "Frugality in Funerals."  The Mohists point to the variety between burial customs among the tribal peoples on the periphery of the Chinese world and note that, although what the tribes practice is customary within their communities, these practices also are all understood by an elite Chinese audience to be barbaric and immoral.  The Mohists thus urge that, just because elaborate funerals and lengthy mourning are customary practices among the gentlemen of the central states, this fact alone will not secure their consistency with moral rightness.

Bodde derk essays chinese civilization

bodde derk essays chinese civilization

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