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During the late 1940s, Jackson Pollock's radical approach to painting revolutionized the potential for all Contemporary art that followed him. To some extent, Pollock realized that the journey toward making a work of art was as important as the work of art itself. Like Pablo Picasso 's innovative reinventions of painting and sculpture near the turn of the century via Cubism and constructed sculpture, with influences as disparate as Navaho sand paintings , surrealism, Jungian analysis, and Mexican mural art, [26] Pollock redefined what it was to produce art. His move away from easel painting and conventionality was a liberating signal to the artists of his era and to all that came after. Artists realized that Jackson Pollock's process—the placing of unstretched raw canvas on the floor where it could be attacked from all four sides using artist materials and industrial materials; linear skeins of paint dripped and thrown; drawing, staining, brushing; imagery and non-imagery—essentially took art-making beyond any prior boundary. Abstract expressionism in general expanded and developed the definitions and possibilities that artists had available for the creation of new works of art.

This textbook has more freedom than most (but see some exceptions ). First, there is no cost to acquire this text, and you are under no obligation whatsoever to compensate or donate to the author or publisher. So in this most basic sense, it is a free textbook. Therefore you can also make as many copies as you like, ensuring that the book will never go out-of-print. You may modify copies of the book for your own use - for example, you may wish to change to a prefered notation for certain objects or add a few new sections. There is a copyright on the book, and subsequently it is licensed with a GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL). It is this combination that allows the author to give you greater freedoms in how you use the text, thus liberating it from some of the antiquated notions of copyright that apply to books in physical form. The main caveat is that if you make modifications and then distribute a modified version, you are required to again apply the GFDL license to the result so that others may benefit from your modifications.

Research shows that school climate has an important effect on the prevalence of peer bullying. Therefore, the aims of our study were to determine: 1) if there are differences in the perceptions of bullying-related school climate by victims, bullies, non-victims and non-bullies, and 2) which sociodemographic and school climate factors predict the roles of chronic victims and bullies. The results suggest that there are more victims in younger students and more bullies among boys. We also found significant differences in perceptions of school climate by victims and bullies and were able to predict a small/moderate amount of variance in the roles of chronic victims/bullies by sociodemographic and school climate variables. Implications of the study findings are also discussed.

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